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Full text of "A device for safely transplanting long leaf pines and other evergreens"

A 
LONG 


DEVICE FOR SAFELY TRANSPLANTING 
LEAF PINES AND OTHER EVERGREENS 






By 






Lionel Weil 




North Carolina State Library 

5 5 • n 

A Deuice for Saf elu Transplanting 

Long Leaf Pines and Other 

Euergreens 






Lionel IPeil 
Qoldsboro, North Carolina 






"Here's to the Land of the Long Leaf Pine ! 
The Summer Land, where the sun doth shine, 
Where the weak grow strong, and the strong grow great ; 
Here's to 'Down Home,' the Old North State." 



iJBM^HE writer, in his endeavor to enhance the horti- 
WJ cultural effect around his home in Goldsboro, 
N. C, brought in from the nearby woods about 
fifty small long leaf pines, ranging in height from two 
and one-half to four and one-half feet. These grew al- 
most exclusively in sandy soil, and an effort was made 
to cut under the roots, so as to bring as much of the roots, 
together with the surrounding soil, as possible. Each 
tree was then carefully wrapped and tied in burlap.' 
Owing to the nature of the soil, however, it was next to 
impossible to form any adhesion between the root and 
the soil, and after transplanting these trees and anx- 
iously awaiting signs of life, they all died during 
the next spring and summer, with one lone exception. 
This lone survivor had been taken up on a different day 
during a very cold spell when the ground was frozen, 
and, in consequence, the ball of soil was taken up with 
the roots intact and thus transplanted. This tree was 
kept well watered during the first season and survived. 

Planning and Operation of Device 

The above experience has led the writer to the follow- 
ing conclusion : • 

That in order for the transplanted tree to receive as little check 
as possible in becoming established to its new habitat, it is essen- 
tial that the greater portion of its fibrous and hair roots should 
be removed in their original position, encased in their native 
soil. Thus the roots of the tree will be enabled to take from its 
original soil the stored up nourishment and continue, uninter- 
ruptedly, the vital processes. This constitutes the basic idea of 
a device for transplanting. 



After repeated trials and experiments, a transplanting 
receptacle was designed to meet the above situation. This 
is shown in Illustration No. 1. A patent, was issued for 
this device by the United States Government on May 
31st, 1921. This illustration shows the transplanting re- 
ceptical lying on its hinged back, the inserted bottom 
with its pins and slides being in the immediate fore- 
ground of this illustration. This receptical is preferably 
made of sheet iron and is provided with a pair of semi- 
circular side walls (Illustration No. 2), which are prefer- 
aby of less width at their lower than their upper edges, 
these side walls being hingedly secured together so that a 
receptacle of tapering construction is provided. 




Illustration No. 1. 

Transplanting Receptacle 

Of Material Assistance to the Life and Growth of the 
Than spi. a n ted Tree. 



The advantages of this tapering construction are : 

First, to accomodate itself to the root system, same 
being developed to a greater degree nearer the surface 
and gradually tapering toward the bottom of the tree, 
as you go deeper into the soil. 

Second, the lower end of the receptacle when closed, 
being of appreciably less circumference than the upper 
end, the walls of same materially assist in supporting the 
roots and column of soil it is intended to transplant. 

How to Use the Tbansplanting Receptacle 

In order to transplant the tree, it is first necessary to 
dig a circle around the tree (Illustration No. 2), a small 
fraction less than the size of the top of the receptacle 
and dig down until the larger roots disappear, the depth 
not to exceed the depth of the receptacle, also bearing in 
mind the general outline of the receptacle. The next 
step is to open the receptacle (Illustration No. 2), place 
same around the column of soil and roots and fasten 
securely the sides of the receptacle by drawing together 
the straps through the buckles. The receptacle is now 
ready to have its bottom inserted. Project two iron 
pins through holes in front at bottom of receptacle. 




Illustration No. 



Showing Soil Around Pine Removed in Proper Form, Ready 
to be Surrounded by Transplanting Receptacle. 



These pins (see Illustration No. 3) are to penetrate the 
column of soil and are to rest in slots on the same level 
at the back of the receptacle. These pins form the main 
support for four slides, which are then to be inserted 
through the slots into the walls of the receptacle and 
column of soil. 




,;,;/;v/.- 



Illustration No. 3. 

Transplanting Receptacle Properly Attached to Tree to 

be Transplanted Showing Bottom Inserted. 



These slots are placed at intervals of about ninety 
degrees and rest immediately on the pins, thereby forming 
the bottom of the receptacle, covering sufficient surface 
and being sufficienty rigid to prevent slippage or displace- 
ment of soil and roots. The plant is then ready to be 
taken up and transplanted. (See Illustration No. 4.) 




Illustration No. 4. 

Showing Transplanting Receptacle in Act of Being De- 
tached Upon Transplanting of Tree. 



This operation is quite simple. A hole is dug of suffi- 
cient size not only to admit the receptacle, but to provide 
for the withdrawal of the pins and slides forming the 
bottom. The receptacle, containing the tree, is placed 
in the hole, so that the original soil line will be about 
1% inches lower than the new soil line. The pins and 
slides are then withdrawn. The space immediately sur- 
rounding the receptacle should be filled with fine fertile 
soil up to the first buckle and tamped. Then the buckle 
is opened. The next fill is up to the second buckle, which 
is then released, and so on to the last buckle, which is 
then opened and the walls of the opened receptacle with- 
drawn. The new soil should be well watered after filling 
in. Using this receptacle in the above described man- 
ner, the writer was successful in safely transplanting 
thirty-five out of forty young long leaf pine -trees, 
ranging in size from 2^4 to 5 feet. These were brought 
in from the forest February, 1920, and today show a 
healthy, vigorous condition, making a pronounced new 
growth of limb and leaf. Illustration "No. 5 graphically 
shows a small pine, its root system and "outline of can" 
or receptacle, it being the intention to show as near as 
possible the position of the roots and soil and the 
portion that is taken up with the tree when transplanted. 



10 




Top or Soil 






Outline of Ca 



n 



Illustration No. 5. 

Showing Root System of Small Pine and Portion Taken up 
With the Transplanting Receptacle. 



11 



The roots outside the "outline of can" are cut away 
and removed. The height of this particular tree is 3% 
feet above the soil line. The depth of the receptacle is 21 
inches, its diameter at top and bottom is 18 and 12% 
inches respectively. Approximately sixty-five per cent 
of the tree's root system is retained. Trees up to five 
feet in height can be safely transplanted with a receptacle 
of the above dimensions. If it is desired to transplant 
larger trees, all that is necessary is to increase proportion- 
ately the size and strength of receptacle. Theoretically, 
this device can be applied to any class of evergreen or 
deciduous trees with fair prospect of success. Its limita- 
tions on large trees, however, are primarily due to con- 
siderations of practicability and expense. 

Transplanting the Holly 

The holly, unlike the pine, has no tap root. Most of 
its roots are lateral ones and the larger portion is near 
the surface. Accordingly a receptacle of less depth is 
required. Illustration No. 6 shows a holly in transplant- 
ing receptacle ready to be transferred to its new habitat. 
Its height is 11 feet and diameter S 1 /^ inches at soil line. 



12 



A receptacle was provided with a diameter at the top 
and bottom of 29 and 21 inches respectively, the depth 
of the same being 16 inches. Such a receptacle accomo- 
dated about sixty per cent of its root system. Nearly all 
branches and leaves were retained, only a few top ones 
being cut off for convenience. This tree was transplanted 
in March, 1920, and the accompanying illustration (No. 
7) shows its vigor on May, 1921. Although the holly is 
of slow growth, the development of this particular speci- 
men has been continuous and uninterrupted, the limbs 
and foliage showing decided growth, accompanied with 
an abundance of large green berries, a gratifying result 
only fourteen months after transplanting. 

With such an arrangement, it is practicable to trans- 
plant native or nursery grown evergreen shrubs and trees 
from one locality to another with a reasonable degree of 
safety. It is likewise easy to conceive of the transference 
of distinct groups of plants or trees — perhaps a new young 
forest — to another region that has hitherto contained 
none of these beautiful specimens. 



13 








Illustration No. 6. 



Holly Brought in From Forest in Receptacle Awaiting 
Transference to its New Home. March, 1920. 



14 




Illustration No. 7. 

The Transplanted Holly. May, 1921. 

(See Illustration No. 6) 



North Carolina State Library 
Raleigh 



THE STORY OF THE PINE 

^W^HE pine belongs to the Forest Primeval — it is the 
Lljy oldest living representative of geological time 
and has retained its simplicity of floral structure, 
typifying the vegetation of earlier ages. Its distribution 
in the United States is widespread. There are thirty- 
nine species. New England and the Middle Atlantic 
States contain seven, and seven grow principally in the 
Costal Plain Region of the South, while the west con- 
tains twenty-five varities. 

The long leaf pine — the emblem of the South, found 
from Virginia to Tampa Bay and west to the Mississipppi 
is not only a most beautiful tree horticulturally, but it 
is of great utility in a commercial way. The trees often 
reach one hundred feet in height, the trunks are slender, 
rarely exceeding three and one half feet in diameter. 
Their leaves, or needles, are from ten to eighteen inches 
long and form dense tufts at the ends of the branches, 
"being flexible, they droop and sway on ends of erect 
branches like shining fountains, their emerald lightened 
by the silvery sheaves that invest each group of three." 
Their appeal has already been made known to the north- 
ern tourist passing through the Southland, and the sap- 
ling long leaf pine has already begun to enter the north- 
ern market as an important evergreen for Christmas- 
tide. 

Although the pine has come down to us from the count- 
less ages of the past, it nevertheless has suffered in its 
race for life on account of its inability to reproduce itself 
with the vigor of other trees. As soon as it is cut down, 
the root dies, and there exists no power of sending forth 
shoots from the stump and forming new growth. As we 
have seen, it is likewise most difficult to transplant, ex- 
cept by using the Transplanting Receptacle. 



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COMMERCIAL PRINTING COMPANY, RALEIGH, N. C. 



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GC 635.977 W422d 

Weil, Lionel. 

A device for safely transplanting long I 



3 3091 00137 1327 



DATE DUE 


HAY 1 1 








■VII J. J. 








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GAYLORD j 




PRINTED INU.5.A. 



NORTH CAR0LIN1ANA 
RESTRICTED 



635.977 
W422d 

Weil 

A device for safely transplanting long 
leaf pines and other evergreens 





&£3